Lost in Translation – Building a Common Language for Regulating Autonomous Weapons

by Marc Canellas and Rachel Haga

Autonomous weapons systems (AWS) are already here. Although some of the colloquial names for AWS may suggest science fiction (killer robots [1], [2], terminators [3], and cyborg assassins [3]), these systems are anything but fiction. Since the 1970s the U.S. Navy’s “Phalanx” Close-In Weapon System has been capable of “autonomously performing its own search, detect, evaluation, track, engage and kill assessment functions” against high-speed threats such as missiles, ships, aircraft, and helicopters [4]. Not limited to the U.S., Germany has developed a similar land vehicle defense system, the Active Vehicle Protection System, which has a reaction time of less than 400 ms when launching fragmentation grenades against incoming missiles [5].
AWS are possible due to the convergence of new technology supply and well-established military demand [6]. The drivers of military demand can be summed up as force multiplication, expanding the battle-space, extending the warfighters’ reach, and casualty reduction [7]. As for technology supply, over the past three decades, sensors and transmitters have decreased in cost while increasing in functionality. As a result, AWS sit at the intersection of novel automation capable of making decisions without humans and established lethal weapons.

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IEEE T&S Magazine, September 2016

 


ON THE COVER:

DON ADAMS AS MAXWELL SMART, WITH INFAMOUS “SHOE PHONE.” GENERAL ARTISTS CORPORATION- GAC-MANAGEMENT/PUBLIC DOMAIN/WIKIMEDIA.

Moving ICTD Research Beyond Bungee Jumping Lost in Translation Smartphones, Biometrics, and a Brave New World

 


Conference Announcement
ISTAS 2016, Kerala, India icon.access.free


President’s Message
Is Ethics an Emerging Property? icon.access.free
Greg Adamson


Editorial
Can Good Standards Propel Unethical Technologies?  icon.access.free
Katina Michael


News and Notes
IEEE Technology and Society icon.access.freeMagazine Seeks Editor-in-Chief


Book Reviews
How Not to Network a Nation icon.access.free
Loren Graham


Leading Edge
Internet Governance, Security,
Privacy and the Ethical Dimension of ICTs in 2030 icon.access.free

Vladimir Radunovic


Commentary
The Paradox of the Uberveillance Equation   icon.access.free
MG Michael

Can We Trust For-Profit Corporations to Protect Our Privacy?*icon.access.locked
Wilhelm E.J. Klein

Are Technologies Innocent?*icon.access.locked
Michael Arnold and Christopher Pearce


Opinion
ICTs and Small Holder Farming icon.access.free
Janet Achora


Industry Perspective
Smart Cities: A Golden Age for Control Theory? icon.access.free
Emanuele Crisostomi, Robert Shorten, and Fabian Wirth


Last Word
An Ounce of Steel: Crucial Alignmentsicon.access.free
Christine Perakslis

*Refereed articles

 

 

 

SPECIAL ISSUE ON ISTAS 2015 – 

TECHNOLOGY, CULTURE, AND ETHICS

Guest Editorial – Future of Sustainable Developmenticon.access.free
Paul M. Cunningham

Technology-Enhanced Learning in Kenyan Universities*icon.access.locked
Miriam Cunningham

Moving ICTD Research Beyond Bungee Jumping*icon.access.locked
Andy Dearden and William D. Tucker

Expanding the Design Horizon for Self-Driving Vehicles*icon.access.locked
Pascale-L. Blyth, Miloš N. Mladenovic´, Bonnie A. Nardi,
Hamid R. Ekbia, and Norman Makoto Su

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Lost in Translation – Building a Common Language for Regulating
Autonomous Weapons*
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Marc Canellas and Rachel Haga

Smartphones, Biometrics, and a Brave New World*icon.access.locked
Peter Corcoran and Claudia Costache

Ethics, Children, and Biometric Technology*icon.access.locked
Darelle van Greunen

Intelligent Subcutaneous Body Area Networks*icon.access.locked
P.A. Catherwood, D.D. Finlay, and J.A.D. McLaughlin


Humanitarian Cyber Operations*icon.access.locked
Jan Kallberg

 

 

 

*Refereed articles.

IEEE T&S Magazine, June 2016

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VOL. 35, NO. 2, JUNE 2016

SPECIAL SECTION—Rise of the Robots:
Technology and Social Disruption

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President’s Message
3 Do We Just “Build Stuff”?icon.access.free
Greg Adamson

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4 ISTAS 2017 — Kerala, India

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5 When Uber Cars Become Driverless: “They Won’t Need No Driver”icon.access.free
Katina Michael

In Memoriamtoc thumbnail minsky
11 Marvin Minsky 1927–2016icon.access.free
David Brin

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12 Perfecting Sound
15 America’s Assembly Line
18 Rise of the Robots
20 The Cybernetics Moment
23 Military Robots: Mapping the Moral Landscape
25 Digital Militarism

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29 When Smart Is Not: Technology and Michio Kaku’s The Future of the Mindicon.access.free
Jeff Robbins

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28 Social Network Neutrality, Anyone?icon.access.free
Nicholas Paul Sheppard
32 RFID Implant Developments: Where are We Headed and Why?icon.access.free
Sharon Rose Bradley-Munn
86 Are Technologies Innocent? Part Three: The Passive Instrument Argument*icon.access.locked
Michael Arnold and Christopher Pearce

Ethical Dilemmas
34 GM Ignition Switch Recall: Too Little Too Late?icon.access.free
Karl Stephan
36 Toyota: Not So Fast, Guysicon.access.free
Karl Stephan

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38 Uber Is Built on Trusticon.access.free
Chris MacDonald

News and Notes
39 ISTAS 2016: An Update

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88 Militarized Zonesicon.access.free
Christine Perakslis

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40_ Will My Next Car Be a Libertarian or a Utilitarian? Who Will Decide?*icon.access.locked
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46_ Sex Robot Matters — Slavery, the Prostituted, and the Rights of Machines*icon.access.lockedcopy of image to be used with sex robots article
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54_ Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Disorders: Measuring Ethical Acceptability*icon.access.locked
Andreea Peca, Mark Coeckelbergh, Ramona Simut, Cristina Costescu, Sebastian Pintea, Daniel David, and Bram Vanderborght

67_ Flying Ad-Hoc Networks: Technological and Social Implications*icon.access.lockededitorial thumbnail drones
Wajiya Zafar and Bilal Muhammad Khan

 

FEATURE

75_ Privacy Policy Analysis of Popular Web Platforms*icon.access.locked
Stephanie Winkler and Sherali Zeadally

* Refereed articles.

T&S Magazine December 2015

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IEEE Technology and Society Magazine

Volume 34, Number 4, December 2015

Departments

President’s Message
3 Improving Our “Engineering-Crazed” Image
Greg Adamson

Book Reviews
4 Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks
6 Faxed: The Rise and Fall of the Fax Machine

Editorial
9 Reflecting on the Contribution of T&S Magazine to the IEEE
Katina Michael

Open Letter
15 Technology and Change

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Viewpoint
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Fernando A. Crespo, Sigifredo Laengle, Paula Baldwin Lind and Víctor Hugo Masías

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20 Corporate Individualism – Changing the Face of Capitalism
László G. Lovászy

23 Multimedia and Gaming Technologies for Telerehabilitation of Motor Disabilities
Andrea Proietti, Marco Paoloni, Massimo Panella, Luca Liparulo and Rosa Altilio

31 MoodTrek – A New App to Improve Mental HealthCare
Ganesh Gopalakrishna and Srivam Chellappan

33 Alternative Planning and Land Administration for Future Smart Cities
Soheil Sabri, Abbas Rajabifard, Serene Ho, Mohammad-Reza Namazi-Rad, and Christopher Pettit

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36 Pharmaco-Electronics Emerge
Joseph R. Carvalko

41 Blockchain Thinking*
Melanie Swan

63 Information Paradox*
Levent V. Orman

Fiction
54 Held Captive in the Cyberworld
Michael Eldred

Last Word
104 Digitus Secundus: The Swipe
Christine Perakslis

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Wouter M.P. Steijn and Maartje G.H. Niezen

83_ Shaping Our Technological Futures*
Reihana Mohideen and Rob Evans

88_ Driver Distraction from Dashboard and Wearable Interfaces*
Robert Rosenberger

100_ Are Technologies Innocent?*
Michael Arnold and Christopher Pearce

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On the cover: Blockchain Thinking. English Wikipedia/The Opte Project/Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license.

Car Reporting Accidents, Violations

In addition to car’s using network connections to call for assistance, here is a natural consequence — your car may notify police of an accident, in this case a driver leaving a hit-and-run situation. My insurance company offered to add a device to my car that would allow them to increase my rates if they go faster than they think I should.  Some insurance companies will raise your rates if you exceed their limit (70 MPH) even in areas where the legal limit is higher (Colorado, Wyoming, etc. have 75+ posted limits).  A phone company is promoting a device to add into your car to provide similar capabilities (presented for safety and comfort rationale.)

So what are the possibilities?

  • Detect accident situations and have emergency response arrive even if you are unable to act — and as noted above this may also detect hit-and-run accidents.
  • Provide a channel for you to communicate situations like “need roadside assistance” or “report roadside problem”.
  • Monitor car performance characteristics and notify user (shop?) of out-of-spec conditions
  • Using this same “diagnostic port”, taking remote control of car
    • Police action – to stop driver from escaping
    • Ill-intended action, to cause car to lose control

So, in line with the season, your car  is making a list, checking it twice and going to report if you are naughty or nice —

====

One additional article from the WSJ Dec. 10th on the Battle between car manufacturers and smartphone companies for control of the car-network environment.  The corporate view, from Don Butler, Ford Motor’s Director of Connected Vehicles: “We are competing for mind-share inside the vehicle.”  Or as the WSJ says, “Car makers are loath to give up key information and entertainment links… and potentially to earn revenue by selling information and mobile connectivity.”  In short, the folks directing the future of connected vehicles are not focusing on the list of possibilities and considerations above.

 

Dr.Priya Mishra


Dr.Priya Mishra
Bangalore, Karnataka; India
SSIT Volunteer since: 2013
picture of Dr.Mishra SSIT Roles
Joined 2013 as founder member of IEEE SSIT ES joint Bangalore chapter . Till date conducted more than 15 events including students chapter.
IEEE Roles
IEEE Educational Activities, Conference Committees, IEEE Section/Chapter
SSIT 5 Pillars Interest:
Sustainability, Impact of Emerging Technology
Other:
Keen on working towards community of practices and direct intervention through technology to change the lives of people preferably children.
Web site & Social Media IEEE Senior Member in Bangalore Section of Region 10

Last updated: 20/02/2017